Branch of dental surgery consisting of placement of implants in the lower jaw (mandible) and/or upper jaw (maxillary bone), dental implantology is also called oral implantology, or, simply, implantology.
It is practised by surgeon-dentists and specialist maxillofacial surgery and stomatology doctors.
The surgical practice of dental implantology enables prevention of jawbone erosion following periodontal disease or bone loss following extraction or loss of one or more teeth.
A technique for treatment of edentulous space, the placement of dental implants enables correction of medical problems (jaw stability, gum and tissue disease, etc.), surgical problems (facial or oral reconstruction following trauma or cancer, etc.) and aesthetic problems (missing teeth, etc.).
Pre-implant surgery: bone grafts
A maxillary or mandibular bone graft aims to increase jawbone volume to enable placement of dental implants, stabilisation of a removable prosthesis, repair following trauma or substance loss following periodontal disease. The graft is completed either using natural bone (autologous graft or allogeneic graft) or using biocompatible artificial or synthetic bone (synthetic graft).
The main objective of a maxillary or mandibular bone graft, however, is the placement of dental implants to be used as fixation supports for dental prostheses which will be attached at a later date.
Implant surgery: various procedures
Cylindro-conical dental implants benefit from calibrated instrumentation which facilitates their placement and enables good adaptation in the bone, with immediate loading or deferred loading of the dental prosthesis.
Implant placement is performed by a surgeon-dentist qualified in dental implantology or a maxillofacial surgeon who has received training in fitting prostheses on dental implants and takes place over several successive steps:
- Surgical intervention for insertion of implant,
- Osseointegration phase lasting a minimum of 4 months,
- Placement of healing screw for preparation of widening of the prosthesis,
- Measures for manufacture by the dental prosthetist,
- Screw retained or impact retained placement of the prosthesis.